Hou F, Bourne L S, 2006, "The migration – immigration link in Canada’s gateway cities: a comparative study of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver" Environment and Planning A 38(8) 1505 – 1525
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The migration – immigration link in Canada’s gateway cities: a comparative study of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver
Feng Hou, Larry S Bourne
Received 21 July 2004; in revised form 17 February 2005
Abstract. In this paper we explore the links between internal migration and international immigration in Canada’s three largest metropolitan areas. In particular, we use a place-specific approach to test the displacement hypothesis that the migration behaviour of the less-well-educated native-born population is sensitive to the inflows of immigrants. Based on analyses of microdata from five consecutive censuses covering the period from 1981 to 2001, we find that the migration – immigration relationships are complex, often subtle, and inconsistent across the three cities. Growth in the immigrant population is correlated with an increased out-migration rate among the less-well-educated native-born population, but only in Toronto and Vancouver. This correlation, however, is not independent of changes in housing prices. We also find no consistent support for an alternative hypothesis that economic restructuring accounts for the net out-migration from immigrant gateway cities.
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